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Background: The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) recommends fasting before surgery: clear liquids (2 hrs), breast milk (4 hrs), light meal (6 hrs), and fried foods/fatty foods/meat (> 8 hrs). In emergencies, guidelines are bypassed for timely surgical intervention. Pediatric post-anesthesia complications caused by violating fasting guidelines remain controversial. The aim of this study was to compare the risk of post-anesthetic complications in patients who met and did not meet ASA fasting guidelines for pediatric orthopaedic emergency procedures.
Methods: Patients were retrospectively identified who had emergent procedures at a level 1 pediatric trauma center from 2010 to 2020. Patients were divided into two groups: those meeting current ASA fasting criteria of fasting and those who did not. Charts were reviewed for complications of gastric content aspiration during or following anesthesia.
Results: There were 321 patients who met inclusion criteria for emergency orthopaedic surgeries. Of these, 264 (82%) met fasting guidelines, and 57 (18%) did not. One patient who met preoperative fasting status needed postoperative supplemental oxygen and met criteria to be reported as an adverse event. Of the 57 patients not meeting fasting guidelines, there were no anesthesia-reported adverse events.
Conclusions: No increased risk was found with anesthesia in nonfasted patients with orthopaedic emergencies undergoing general anesthesia during the perioperative period. No respiratory complications (pulmonary aspiration, intraoperative or postoperative emesis, or postoperative respiratory support) were reported in patients who did not meet fasting guidelines. The authors believe this is a valuable starting point for further research into fasting criteria in pediatric trauma patients.